Australia has been involved in international climate negotiations since the 1980s and has had a national climate change target since 1990. Australia was one of 170 parties that signed the Paris Climate Change Agreement in April 2016. As part of the agreement, most countries pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit global warming to a level “well below” 2 degrees Celsius. The government must present the Paris Agreement to Parliament before Australia can ratify it. As the graph above shows, other steps have been taken since 1992 during negotiations at events such as the COP (Conference of the Parties). The main agreements on climate change are: the Kyoto Protocol requires 37 industrialized countries, plus the EU, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Developing countries were invited to voluntarily commit and more than 100 developing countries, including China and India, were totally excluded from the Kyoto agreement. Comparisons are complicated by the use of different base years, but Australia`s 2030 emissions reduction target has been described as less ambitious than that of most developed countries. The climate change agency has recommended a 30% reduction in emissions from 2000 by 2025.
An important directive in the agreement calls for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions to limit the increase in global temperature to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century, while taking steps to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The Paris Agreement also provides an opportunity for industrialized countries to assist developing countries in their efforts to adapt to climate change and establishes a framework for transparent monitoring and communication of developing countries` climate goals. Climate protection means reducing or preventing the effects of something. Mitigation strategies include: the United States signed the protocol but did not ratify it, and Canada withdrew in 2011. Many governments have signed the Kyoto Protocol and committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Technology transfer It recognizes the need to accelerate the transfer of technology to developing and developing countries, using the technical and financial mechanisms available. Measures are being announced to strengthen the existing mechanism, which establishes the principles of incentive for development in developing countries on the basis of the technological needs of an emissions trajectory compatible with the 2oC target. The goal of sustainability is to manage resources so that future generations can also use resources. International concern has led many countries to reduce their consumption and consumption of fossil fuels.
SOLUTIONS Solutions to the possible effects of climate change include many engineering solutions. The usual method is tanks to store and pipelines to transfer it. An example is the Kielder water transfer system in the north-east of England Some regions use dematerialization to recover fresh water from the oceans. Efforts are also being made to increase water savings, reuse and recycling, and in the UK significant government investments and water-saving technology are being made by government and water management in water-efficient education and technology. Piping wells can be immersed in regions to tap into groundwater such as those used in the Bangladesh adaptation 3 – reducing the risk of sea level rise Climate change is causing sea level rise. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that global sea levels will rise by 28 to 43 cm by the end of the century. The IPCC`s forecasts for sea level rise can be seen below. In the UK, rising sea levels could affect beaches, low-lying areas and buildings, including tourist attractions and historic monuments